What ASBO means is that even so the universe lacks empirical values men can still choose values that are positive to their strength of character. So while the hedonist may become fat, suffer from many STD's and have an extremely questionable character the realist will attempt to find meaning for ones self regardless of whether the universe provides such meaning or not.
what's wrong with being fat and suffering from STDs, what if the realist finds that his meaning is to fuck BITCHES and eat PASTRIES, is the man of virtue some how SUPERIOR to the HEROIN ADDICT? if so, this dude wants to know WHY he is superior, because, dawg, i just ain't seein' it!
My understanding of nihilism may be different to others here, but my explanation of it may answer your question as to how a nihilist makes claim to what should be valued.
As I see it, the universe was born from chaos, i.e., without purpose. We have no God or objective morality to tell us how to live, and all things that we could value are impermanent due to the constant flux of becoming that is the universe. Therefore, we arrive at nihilism. Our existence is meaningless, and only death is real.
This creates a crisis that we must resolve, which can be done in 3 ways:
1. Kill yourself -- existence is meaningless and death is inevitable, so why postpone the end?
2. Passive nihilism -- existence is meaningless, so nothing is objectively worth doing, and I will live out this meaninglessness as the truth of existence; c.f. fatalism.
3. Active nihilism -- we have been granted life through chaos, and existence is a sandbox for us to play with and find joy; let's craft meaning that grants us the greatest and longest fulfillment in life.
In my eyes, you either decide you enjoy living, or you don't. If you don't, kill yourself. If you do, then realise that existence and joy is a goal and that there are certain ways we can prolong both. We could just live out shallow hedonism as per the second step, but if we're here we may as well make the most of it by recognising that all meaning hitherto has been constructed and we can do the same. So we create
values that will give us the greatest joy collectively and individually for the limited time we have.
As per nihilism, the fat slob with the STDs = the pastry-eating bitch-fucker = the Ubermensch. However, as people who value existence and joy, we recognise that the AIDS-infected slob would not enjoy life, and that a society which values STDs and obesity would not last long. Similarly, the pastry-eating bitch-fucker may enjoy his actions, but joy is a secondary phenomenon that comes from a direction. As they're utterly transient, between his eating and his fucking, he's going to feel like shit because his life feels empty without any values. The Ubermensch, on the other hand, is liberated from all constraints in his constant cycles of self-overcoming, and because his life is continuous growth and has self-defined direction, chances are he'll experience joy. The heroin addict is not an Ubermensch because he is not overcoming himself, and is stuck in a stasis of liquid bliss.
We have overcome nihilism and become post-nihilists by choosing to create value rather than receive it or to live in meaninglessness, but are still nihilistic in that we realise that all values are essentially baseless and that we have chosen
this path for our own enjoyment.
After all, why the fuck not?