Neverlake (2013)

October 19, 2014 –

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Neverlake attempts the holy grail of postmodern horror film: to unite the supernatural and the modern into a single narrative where one reveals the other. Despite focusing perhaps too much on “atmosphere” at the beginning of the story, the movie creates compelling supernatural narrative within a very modern plot.

The plot centers on a young English-Italian girl, Jenny, who goes to visit her semi-estranged father in the Tuscan countryside. A self-assured young woman who spends most of her time with her nose in a book, Jenny begins having visions of the supernatural connected to a nearby lake. As her father relates, this lake has been used for three millennia by Etruscans to commemorate their dead… and possibly, much more. The plot then develops in parallel between Jenny’s exploration of her thoroughly modern and dysfunctional family, and her deepening learning about the ancient lake with the help of a nearby group of children recovering from mutilating injuries. During the process, Jenny needles her father for more information about her Italian mother who died when Jenny was very young.

While the word “atmosphere” sometimes takes on a connotation of euphemism for boredom with a soundtrack, it does not fully take on that role here; the movie develops slowly and in retrospect, this is less necessary than the filmmakers thought and probably more intended to lull us into submission. That is an error because the wide pans of the lush Italian countryside tend to do that quite effectively. The first third of the movie sometimes lapses into atmosphere pieces that achieve less than their screen time; instead, a more plausible use of screen time would be to give us more of the geography of the house in which Jenny and her family is living, of which we see two rooms, which becomes disorienting later. The plot is cryptic but not “clever” in the sense of handily tying up a bunch of quirks into a plot that technically makes sense but slips too far beyond known reality to be interesting except as a kind of mental party game or hypothetical conjecture. Sadly, the film is blighted with a title that seems like a broken neologism and film posters that, at least in the US, make it seem as if this movie were about combat with lake-zombies. That poster served to simultaneously attract people who will hate this movie and exclude the people who would enjoy it. It deserves a second look.

Neverlake builds its tension on a solid plot and a mystery that enmeshes its different parts with one another to make a kind of self-referential maze. It reinforces this with music that intensifies the atmosphere and cinematography that brings out the isolation of its characters. The music fits within a strange zone between soundtrack, Dead Can Dance with no solo vocals, and some of the more recent ambient neofolk material. Although written using modern instrumentation, it captures an ancient feel, clearly familiar with both Carmina Burana and Ancient Airs and Dances. Keyboard symphonic music without solo vocals or consistent drumming gives this film the spacious air and gravity that it needs, where throwing in the usual alt-rock B-sides as many horror movies currently trend would have savagely trashed the atmosphere. Cinematography also reinforces the mood; the filmmakers opt for a dense, saturated scene with wide contrasts in color, allowing the lake to dominate like a gleaming life-form and to show people as somewhat washed out, empty and terrified. They do this without over-processing and thus ruining the lush natural detail.

The script for Neverlake strategically builds to a conclusion which is as intense as the earlier part of the film was vacant. This balance seems intentional, just perhaps miscalibrated. Daisy Keeping creates a simultaneously disingenuous and headstrong Jenny who stumbles perfectly into the role set for her by the script, while more mature actors manage to combine creepiness and standard postmodern adult vagueness and incoherence into a single mode, which makes them both comfortingly background and potentially complicit. Combined with the intensifying music and intensely naturalistic filming itself, the plot development helps create a sensation of slipping beyond the modern and known into a world of the ambiguous and threatening, which is then explained through the modern — but questions remain. For those who like a good horror film that is more internal existential and moral terror than chainsaws and centipedes, Neverlake provides a powerful escapist fantasy.

Death Metal Zombies (1995)

October 18, 2014 –

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Death Metal Zombies
Horrorscope Productions, 1995. 90 minutes.
Unrated

Those of the death metal persuasion tend to value content over surface. This idea emerges from the basic thought of metal: beauty in darkness through structure, social appearance be damned. As such, the death metal audience tends to ignore the differences that millions of dollars of production bring, and focus on the content of a movie.

Death Metal Zombies is (mostly) such a movie. Its entertainment value matches that of films with much larger budget and media support. However, it is a bit of a mess. Filmed on video cameras in the exburbs of Houston, Texas it features continuity mistakes, sometimes amateurish camera work, and of course non-professional actors, so much so that the directors released an anniversary cut a decade later that halved the film length and re-arranged it to make more sense. This was clearly a project in which people learned their craft, and starts with the almost assuredly marijuana-inspired concept that a cassette tape can contain musical programming to turn people into zombies. However, we have all seen films with far dumber premises that made it out of major studios. Gone Girl, The Expendables, Avengers and Star Trek: Into Darkness come to mind as multimillion dollar tributes to idiocy.

The basic idea of this film is that people in the dead-end middle class outer suburbs of a flat, humid and boring major city (which was nowhere on the news in 1995) have little to live for except death metal, and they find a way to hook up with a “special” tape from their favorite band, Living Corpse. This tape contains thirteen minutes of sonic programming that transform them into zombies who promptly return to their normal lives and act out the fantasies of death, gore and retribution that do not fit into the modern world. This review focuses on the original film, not the edit, which has its charm in that despite some filmmaking ineptitude and a possibly ill-advised metal-centric plot, it captures the lives of its filmmakers and actors and amplifies that experience to a supernatural level. It works perfectly in a post-modern sense as not the focal point of an evening, but a topic of commentary, where the real movie is more the conjecture about it and experience of criticizing it than what is on the screen.

The above-average viewer will spend much of this film wondering what exactly is going on. The filmmakers burn through too much tape setting up scenes, and not enough showing action, which makes viewers wonder what to focus on. This is balanced by relatively strong action scenes with creative (and copious but not overblown) gore, quality violence and a genuinely menacing atmosphere. Were I some kind of film critic, I would loathe this because it insults every pretense of that profession, but as a lifelong media hater who finds most movies to be inane, I see this film as less inane although less technically gifted than your average Hollywood flick. In particular, characters are believable, situations are believable, and the plot — once you get past the somewhat handicapped device — moves forward enough to compel an urge to witness its conclusion.

In addition, there is a death metal angle: Relapse Records allowed use of what looks like its full catalog, so bands as diverse as Incantation, Pyogenesis, Winter, Disembowelment and Brutality play in the background in scenes that are half-MTV and the rest a zombie film designed to be watched through a bong while chatting with friends. The music angle in both plot and background is not meant to be convincing, but enjoyable, and seeing familiar tropes from death metal bands in the characters, as well as having what was probably the only “real” chance death metal had at having videos back in the day is gratifying. There is no way to construe this film as competitive with professional efforts, but the grim fact is that it is arguably less dumb and more compelling than what the big studios dump arrogantly on our numbed brains.

Kraftwerk nominated for Rock and Roll hall of fame

October 17, 2014 –

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Electronic music pioneers Kraftwerk, whose work along with Tangerine Dream and Dead Can Dance influenced all of black metal, have received a nomination from the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame to finally be recognized by the semi-official industry group.

Kraftwerk burst into electronic music in a time before the personal computer or the programmable sound chip; instead, they created their early sounds with analog electronic instruments and by modifying their own synthesizers and sequencers to achieve a wider range of sounds than previously thought possible. Their greatest contribution however came through their transportative melodies and alert arrangements, as well as songs that through subject matter peered into the dark heart at the center of the glittering chrome positivism of modernity.

Black metal bands found the dark atmospheres and moral questioning of melancholic, alienated works such as Computer World (1986) to be highly influential, and bands as diverse as Mayhem, Burzum and Darkthrone inherited influence from Kraftwerk and other German-revival “cosmic” bands. Perhaps the greatest observation from Kraftwerk comes from their 1978 hit “The Robots” in which the ideal worker lauds obedience and tractability as a form of victory. Such cynical takes on modern time, coupled with a positive alternative vision of technology, defined the Kraftwerk approach during its classic years.

Organic (formerly Organic Infest) release new material

October 13, 2014 –

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Puerto Rican death metal band Organic Infest took a new direction with new members and became Organic, which has re-issued its discography and recently unleashed a new track, “The Holocaust,” which shows the direction the band will take upcoming recordings.

As usual defying the conventional method and trends alike, Organic features a drummer, a bassist and… a second bassist. Chew Correa plays a piccolo bass in place of guitar which prompts unconscious fear by metalheads that the music will not have the same crashing intensity as regular death metal. “The Holocaust” puts these fears to rest.

Organic takes an approach to death metal which differs from the more aggressive riff-based attack; this is a layered, spacious and highly melodic vision of death metal without seeping into the sappy land of warmed-over heavy metal made pretty for listening at parties which is essentially what “melodic death metal” has become. Instead, Correa leads his team in an approach more like structured jazz, with deep percussive texture allowing the stringed instrument players time to overlap one another in patterns that do not quite mimic guitar, but push bass in a new direction as well.

“The Holocaust” shows Organic ripping into fast death/speed hybrid riffs with room for melodic touches and rhythmic fills, creating variety between the shredding straight-ahead approach and the more nuanced layering. Complete with roaring vocals that approach a “bestial” side of metal instead of the more uniform barking or riot shouts, Organic use this track to forge a new style based on their strengths and many attributes of classic heavy metal.

Summoning at work on new material

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Flowing black metal band Summoning have issued the following update:

After having turned our attention on different things during the first half of this year, we are back to concentrate on summoning again. There are already some new riff composed and rearrangements have been done of songs from the O.M.D session. Protector also started to recreate our homepage, with a total new design and updated content.

So the hammers are pounding loudly again in carven deep and far on the horizons the first ray of light are bearing witness of the return of the old ways …

This announcement cheers many who have come to appreciate the Summoning brand of black metal: longer melodies more tightly integrated with keyboard counterparts, slower pace with more atmosphere, and a medieval/Tolkien-esque escape from the nominalist insanity of modernity.

Metal Music Coin launches first heavy metal virtual currency

October 9, 2014 –

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Starting with BitCoin, virtual currencies or crypto-currencies have changed the face of economics as well as the purchasing ability of the ordinary citizen. Unlike normal currency, which is backed by perceived value of assets, crypto-currencies make themselves rare by requiring cryptographic computation to generate the currency.

Much as gold or a national economy is a limited amount held under control of a responsible party, virtual currencies constrain themselves by the difficulty in generating cryptographic keys, or “bit mining” the coins. This guarantees their value will not be obliterated by the equivalent of reckless printing of money, which spams the market and reduces their value. However, their value fluctuates with what people are willing to exchange for them.

Crypto-currencies have one sizable disadvantage: unlike conventional currencies which are backed by governments and (in theory) overseen through transparency and financial markets enforcing their value, virtual currencies are held in the hands of their creators and have no guarantee. If the source goes down or is confiscated, they can lose all value; further, as Bitcoin fans found out when the Mt. Gox exchange was compromised, there are no guarantees. Virtual currencies are entirely determined by demand for them in the market at the moment. However, this anonymity is also what makes them appealing; using darknet exchanges like Silk Road, patrons can use crypto-currencies to anonymously purchase objects and information that would otherwise be illegal with impunity.

Last year a shadowy figure known as Core Adrian launched a new virtual currency for heavy metal fans to use and possibly, to form the basis for a new metal market in anonymous trading that would rival what currently eBay, Amazon and Google control. He took the time to give us a few words on Metal Music Coin and its future.

What is virtual currency?

A virtual currency is “a type of unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers, and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community” (European Central Bank definition, 2012). This started with Bitcoin which remains the most widely used and well-known crypto-currency. Many of the current crypto-currencies are based on Bitcoin.

Like traditional money these virtual currencies may be used to buy physical goods and services.

This virtual currency are free to mine by using your computer’s video card and some other mining hardware that you can buy anywhere. and to mine it, it require basic software on each specific algorithim like bfgminer and guiminer to name the few.

Can you tell us a little bit about yourself, where you’re from and how you got started in the underground?

I’m a die hard metal fanatics, and working as a web and graphic designer in New Zealand. I started in the underground around 1997 during my college era, studying while doing underground-related stuff like going to gigs/concert buying their CDs and merchandise.

When did you start Metal Music Coin and why?

I started Metal Music Coin just recently last October 4th, 2014 and the main goal of this coin is to support underground metal scene by helping bands promote their album releases and other bands merchandise and this coin will be use as an alternative payment method for it or as a crypto currency only for metal.

What are the advantages, anonymity and otherwise, of cryptocurrencies?

Advantages of crypto currencies is that they are free to mine, and once you have those coin you are free to buy any stuff in any online shop that are supported by those crypto currencies. And this crypto currencies has their own value in exchange to fiat money.

What do you hope will happen with Metal Music Coin?

I’m hoping that soon Metal Music Coin will be recognized as a crypto-currency only for metal and supporting underground metal bands. So if you are into Underground Metal and know everything about crypto-currency, Please do support my project and mine Metal Music Coin, let’s not make this coin die, like metal music which never dies. METAL RULES FOREVER…..

Can you tell us a little about your zine, Cult Mongers Zine? How long has it been around, and what does it cover?

Cult Mongers Zine is an underground Publication a print and webzine which cover signed and unsigned bands from Black, death, to thrash metal bands, We started this fanzine maybe around 1999 and we are still continuing working on this publication and now this zine is supported by Metal Music Coin.

If someone wanted to start acquiring Metal Music Coin and using them to purchase stuff from Cult Mongers Distro, how would they do this?

They can can email me at admin@metalmusiccoin.pw or coreadrian@gmail.com.

I’m working on an online shop now where bands can sell their materials online and Metal Music Coin is the payment method and once they sold something will trade Metal Music Coin to Bitcoin and exchange it to money then i will send it directly to the band who sold the materials.

There’s one exchange started to list my coin; it’s called Cryptex (www.cryptex.biz). You can buy Metal Music Coin using Bitcoin or trade Metal Music Coin to Bitcoin. They have free coins there which is really great.

Do you think a new underground can be formed using darknets and crypto-currencies? Like Silk Road for evil underground metal?

Yes this is one of my main goals as well and will continue to push through this to make it happen. So Metal Music Coin needs your full support.

Ripper – Raising the Corpse

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From the fertile grounds of the 1980s came many styles in the hybrid of death metal and speed metal. Many of these used death metal as a means of streamlining the more varied techniques of speed metal, producing songs with more internal rhythmic consistency and streamlined effect.

Others pursued a more melodic direction and made music with the intensity of death metal, the musicality of speed metal, and the toe-tapping addictiveness of power metal and the early German speed metal bands. Ripper falls into this category, joining bands like Grotesque, Slaughter Lord and Merciless in a style of short simple songs with the anthemic choruses and fixed chord progressions of speed metal, but the singular technique and drive of early death metal.

Raising the Corpse features a death metal rasp which will immediately call to mind early Destruction and Merciless. Its songs tend to use a single progression for chorus and vary it with texture, then use a counterpart for verses that creates some tension but mostly establishes rhythm. This approach fits within the early speed metal model that formed the basis of great hook-laden German bands like Destruction and Sodom, and this tradition continues with Ripper. Where Ripper succeeds is in removing extraneous material and cutting to the core of its music, eliminating some of the distraction and randomness that blighted later work from the German bands.

Much like Merciless, Ripper know to invoke a melodic hook with a rhythmic hook and gradually bring a song into unity, at which point they hammer home the infectious chorus until the audience is ready to carve it into their own flesh. While some may point out that little new occurs here stylistically, and many of these riff forms can be traced back to Slayer or Destruction, what Ripper does well is keep this music high-intensity without falling into sameness and to streamline into an effective delivery mechanism that outgrows the confused collision of styles that was the mid to late 1980s.

While Raising the Corpse will be too intense for power metal fans, and may strike death metal fans as too simple, those who take the time to listen will find a good, compelling and energetic release. In the history of metal, bands as varied as Aura Noir, Nifelheim and At the Gates have tried to make albums in this style but none are as consistently listenable and as well-organized as Raising the Corpse. This fits with a recognition that nostalgia is suicidal and odious, and that metal must move on with a clarification of its voice to give these older styles new relevance.

The Electric Guitar in Popular Culture conference issues call for papers

October 8, 2014 –

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The Department of Popular Culture at Bowling Green State University will host the The Electric Guitar in Popular Culture conference on March 27-28, 2015. The conference will examine the study of electric guitar and its effects on popular culture, but also look at how it has changed music itself.

Matt Donahue, conference organizer, issued the following statement: “The Electric Guitar in Popular Culture aims to examine the roles of the electric guitar in cultures throughout the world. It is intended to serve as a space for academics, professionals, hobbyists and fans to engage in dialogue about topics related to the electric guitar and its cultural influence.”

The conference organizers also suggested topics that might be of interest and solicited papers on these topics. Interested parties should send a 300 word abstract describing your individual presentation to electricguitar2015@gmail.com with “The Electric Guitar in Popular Culture” in the subject line. Questions for analysis include:

  • How has the electric guitar altered music and the lives of musicians throughout its history?
  • How has the electric guitar impacted local music scenes in northwest Ohio and those throughout the world?
  • Have changing representations of the guitar in popular culture impacted aspiring musicians?
  • How have advances in technology impacted the production of electric guitars for both producers and consumers?
  • How have various cultures and perspectives surrounding the electric guitar shifted over time?

Additional topics for consideration include:

  • Representations in Popular Culture
  • Globalization of the Electric Guitar
  • Current Trends & Artists
  • Ohio Guitar Shows
  • Guitar Collecting
  • Album Artwork
  • Guitar Magazines & Publications
  • Guitar Manufacturing
  • The Guitar and Education
  • Race/Ethnicity and the Electric Guitar
  • Gender/Sexuality and the Guitar
  • Fender vs. Gibson
  • Guitar As Icon
  • The Guitar in Video Games and Toys
  • Genres & Associated Artists

Deadline for submissions is Sunday, December 21, 2014.​

Details on Compilation of Death issue three

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DMU reported recently that Compilation of Death zine has issue three back from the printers and ready to distribute. Like many of you probably were, I was intrigued by the use of the term “zine” to describe what looks like… a book.

In the grand spirit of investigative metal journalism, DMU reached out to Gabriel Andres Gatica Kretschmer, editor of the Compilation of Death. He answered our questions about the new issue and created anticipation of the new issue with his answers.

How many pages are in the new issue? Are all of them illustrated?

Aesthetically this new issue might be seen as a book because of its large number of pages, but this appearance was not premeditated. Independent of the size, we are and we have the essence of a fanzine: Compilation of Death is created by fans for fans. Our new issue has over 390 pages but keeps the spirit and outlook of a xeroxed ‘zine. And yes, all of the pages are illustrated!

What bands are in it?

  • Features
    • SADISTIC INTENT (in depth special)
    • Brutal Assassin
    • Decomposed (Usa)
    • SINDROME
    • DREAM DEATH
    • PHLEBOTOMIZED
    • Druid Lord
    • DR SHRINKER
    • VOID OF VOMITS
    • EARACHE RECORDS (Interview about the history of the label)
    • Necroccultus
    • HEXX
    • BLOODBATH (Serbia)
    • SORCERY (Sweden)
    • AUTOPSY (Fucking big interview)
    • Nephrite (Norway)
    • DISSECT
    • DIABOLIC/HORROR OF HORRORS/UNHOLY GHOST
    • ENTETY/COFFIN TEXT
    • AGRESSOR (Fra)
    • FATAL (Usa)
    • CIANIDE
    • THANATOPSIS (Usa)
    • OBLITERATION (Nor)
    • BLOODSPILL (Usa)
    • DEATH THREAT (Usa)
    • DECEASED
    • DEATH YELL
    • ETERNAL DARKNESS
    • NILE
    • ROTTREVORE
    • Embrional (Pol)
    • NECROWRETCH
    • ETERNAL SOLSTICE
    • PENTACLE (Studio Report-Live review by Costa Stoios)
    • PROFILES
    • MAGNUS (Pol)
    • Pages of pure fucking Damnation (Chat with old fanzine editors)
    • Aaaarrghh Magazine (NZ)
    • INVOCATOR/MACERATION
    • GOD VOMIT’ Zine
    • RATTLEHEAD ‘ZINE/BLOWING THRASH ZINE
    • DECIBEL OF DEATH ZINE
    • THE BOOK OF ARMAGGEDDON’ZINE/ RAGE RECORDS
    • RAM METAL SECTION (The section of LAURENT RAMADIER)
  • Interviews
    • Gino Marino & NOCTURNUS/INCUBUS
    • MUTILATED (Fra)
    • EXCRUCIATION (SWI)
    • INCANTATION
  • SOME DIE, OTHERS ARE BORN (New section with over 50 new bands)
  • DARK AWAKENING (Review Section)

Is this all-new content? (I assume so, just verifying)

All the content is new, from our own staff and some guests as collaborators in interviews. But we also have some reprints of old interviews from old fanzines.

How is this different from past COD issues?

I think the essence is the same, we just have more pages, therefore, more interviews and articles. We also add a new section with more than 50 upcoming bands where you may learn the basic and essential information about bands who have only been around for a few years and have few releases. We continue with an in-depth special about the history of a band; last issue this was IMMOLATION and in this new edition is been SADISTIC INTENT.

Where can people get this, and about how much will it cost?

HELLSHEADBANGERS from USA is our official distributor; they were responsible for printing our new issue. Some labels in Europe like APOCALYPTIC EMPIRE, IRON BONEHEAD, THE SINISTER FLAME, UNHOLY PROPHECY, TERROR FROM HELL, MEMENTO MORI, WITCHCRAFT ‘ZINE, etc. are distributing our new issue as well. All who are interested in distributing our new issue should contact HELLSHEADBANGERS Records directly and ask for wholesale pricing.

Can you tell us a bit about your background in metal, in writing and in zine publishing? What are you listening to now?

Previously I edited a fanzine called Brutal Passion in Chile, it was something generic, nothing new, you could find the same in other 100 fanzines. I’m a crazy fanzine collector and I decided to do something different and create Compilation of Death zine as a tribute to the old fanzines and focused on the development, history and continuity of a style like death metal and its closest branches.

I see Compilation of Death as a link between the forgotten and the present time… I listen to many things depending on my mood, but these days, the new album of ZEMIAL, OPHIS, DEAD CONGREGATION, DOMAINS, DROWNED, GORGUTS, HAEMOPHAGUS, RUDE, ATARAXY, DISMA, BEYOND, SHEOL, INCANTATION, RIPPER (CHILE), U. KULTEN, PROCESSION, etc… I listen to almost all styles of metal, especially a lot of death metal and heavy metal. My favorite band since I was a child is RUNNING WILD for example…

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Planetary Coalition – Planetary Coalition

October 7, 2014 –

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Since this is a metal site, most of us know Alex Skolnick from his emotional and virtuostic guitar leads on Testament albums; in my view, he gave The New Order the power it needed to rise above being another speed metal band by creating solos that resonated and amplified the emotion in the riffs and vocals.

Years go by and guitarists find themselves in need of new pursuits. Skolnick has since created jazz with his Alex Skolnick Trio and participated in a wide range of other projects, but now he takes an acoustic guitar approach to world music in a style reminiscent of Paco de Lucia with more alertness to contemporary music. He tackles multiple traditions from music around the world with a combined classical/jazz approach which accentuates the subtleties of the music and add texture of melodic activity.

Joined by a wide range of performers including Rodrigo y Gabriela to Kiran Ahluwalia, Adnan Joubran, Pablo Aslan, Horacio “El Negro” Hernandez and more, Skolnick shadows these songs with fast acoustic playing that tackles a dozen or more styles from flamenco to Middle Eastern and combinations of the above, incorporating local instruments and styles in addition to the talents of multiple vocalists. The album basically splits between an instrumental portion and a vocal-driven portion.

Like most world music albums, Planetary Coalition sticks to recognized song forms and melodies that clearly communicate their place of origin and give him a chance to improvise alongside the relatively well-known tunes. Many of them are not known as songs per se so much as archetypes from movies and tourist documentaries that find a type of national sound and explore its tropes, which gives Skolnick a starting point to build on those familiar melodies and amplify the internal dialogue of these songs. He shines most on the instrumentally dense songs such as “Taksim Square,” “Negev Desert Sunset,” “Return of the Yi People” and “Sleeping Gypsy.” For those who are not world music devotees, or planning to use this album as a sort of musical coffee table book to show their SWPL awareness of the vast diversity of earth’s cultures, these songs are where Skolnick shines and shows how he can adapt to a different voice and make it his own.

As an introductory album, Planetary Coalition does quite well but stops short of showing Skolnick’s compositional range. Because it emphasizes a collage of cultures and styles, and thus sticks to the clearly identifiable as a means of communicating that, it ends up in the kind of world music background sound position that much of its audience will expect. That is a shrewd move for Skolnick who seems to be attempting to be accepted first, and then to build on that legacy, as any smart musician would given this opportunity. In an album of all-stars, he finds a place to shine in later tracks, leaving me wishing that he would do more of those, and hoping that the second album will showcase more of his power in his own style even as he pays tribute to the many great voices worldwide who contribute to human music as an ongoing adventure.